《大念住经》Mahasatipatthana Sutta

南传巴利文三藏《长部.大品.22经》

  返回目录  
   
 
 

Mahasatipatthana Sutta

The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Awareness

 

Contents

 

1. Introduction

2. The Observation of Body

A. Section on Respiration

B. Section on Postures

C. Section on Constant Thorough Understanding of Impermanence

D. Section on Reflections on Repulsiveness

E. Section on the Reflections on the Material Elements

F. Section on the Nine Charnel-ground Observations

3. The Observation of Sensations

4. The Observation of Mind

5. The Observation of Mental Contents

A. Section on the Hindrances

B. Section on the Aggregates

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

D. Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

E. Section on the Noble Truths

Exposition of the Truth of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Arising of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Path

6. The Results of Practising the Establishing of Awareness

Notes
(subscript numbers are explained in the endnotes to this book)

 

The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Awareness

Thus have I heard:

At one time the Enlightened One was staying among the Kurus at Kamm±sadhamma, a market town of the Kuru people. There the Enlightened One addressed the monks thus: "Monks,"1 and they replied, "Venerable Sir!" Then the Enlightened One spoke as follows:

1. Introduction

This is the one and only way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the extinguishing of suffering and grief, for walking on the path of truth, for the realisation of nibb±na: that is to say, the fourfold establishing of awareness.2

Which four? Here, monks, a monk dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence,3 observing body in body, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing sensations in sensations, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing mind in mind, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing mental contents in mental contents, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter].4

2. The Observation of Body

A. Section on Respiration

And how, monks, does a monk dwell observing body in body?

Here a monk, having gone into the forest, or to the foot of a tree, or to an empty room, sits down cross-legged, keeps his body upright and fixes his awareness in the area around the mouth. With this awareness, he breathes in, with this awareness, he breathes out. Breathing in a deep breath, he understands properly:5 "I am breathing in a deep breath." Breathing in a shallow breath, he understands properly: "I am breathing in a shallow breath." Breathing out a deep breath, he understands properly: "I am breathing out a deep breath." Breathing out a shallow breath, he understands properly: "I am breathing out a shallow breath." In this way he trains himself: "Feeling the whole body, I shall breathe in." "Feeling the whole body, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself. "With the bodily activities calmed, I shall breathe in," thus he trains himself. "With the bodily activities calmed, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself.

Just as a skilful turner or a turner’s apprentice, while making a long turn understands properly: "I am making a long turn," and while making a short turn, understands properly: "I am making a short turn," just so, the monk, breathing in a deep breath, understands properly: "I am breathing in a deep breath." Breathing in a shallow breath, he understands properly: "I am breathing in a shallow breath." Breathing out a deep breath, he understands properly: "I am breathing out a deep breath." Breathing out a shallow breath, he understands properly: "I am breathing out a shallow breath." In this way he trains himself: "Feeling the whole body, I shall breathe in." "Feeling the whole body, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself. "With the bodily activities calmed, I shall breathe in," thus he trains himself. "With the bodily activities calmed, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself.

Thus6 he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally.7 Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!"8 Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness.9 In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

B. Section on Postures

Again, monks, a monk while he is walking, understands properly: "I am walking"; while he is standing, he understands properly: "I am standing"; while he is sitting, he understands properly: "I am sitting"; while he is lying down, he understands properly: "I am lying down." In whichever position he disposes his body, he understands it properly.10

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

C. Section on Constant Thorough Understanding of Impermanence

Again, monks, a monk, while going forward or backward, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence;11 whether he is looking straight ahead or looking sideways, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; while he is bending or stretching, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether wearing his robes or carrying his bowl, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is eating, drinking, chewing or savouring, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; while attending to the calls of nature, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is walking, standing, sitting, sleeping or waking, speaking or in silence, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

D. Section on Reflections on Repulsiveness

Again, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, that is covered with skin and full of impurities of all kinds from the soles of the feet upwards and from the hair of the head downwards, considering thus: "In this body, there are hairs of the head, hairs of the skin, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine."

Just as if there were a double-mouthed provision bag, full of various kinds of grains and seeds, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung-beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice, and as if there were a man with discerning eyes, who, after having opened that bag would examine the contents, saying: "This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, these are mung-beans, these are cow-peas, these are sesame seeds and this is husked rice"; in this same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, that is covered with skin and full of impurities of all kinds from the soles of the feet upwards and from the hair of the head downwards, considering thus: "In this body, there are hairs of the head, hairs of the skin, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

E. Section on the Reflections on the Material Elements

Again, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, however it is placed or disposed, considering it according to the characteristic of each element: "In this body, there is the earth-element, the water-element, the fire-element and the air-element."

Just as if, monks, a skilful cow-butcher or his apprentice, after having slaughtered a cow and having divided it into portions, would sit down at the junction of four roads; in the same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, however it is placed or disposed, considering the material elements: "In this body, there is the earth-element, the water-element, the fire-element and the air-element."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

F. Section on the Nine Charnel-ground Observations

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, dead for one, two or three days, swollen, blue and festering, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by vultures, being eaten by falcons, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being eaten by tigers, being eaten by leopards, being eaten by jackals and being eaten by different kinds of creatures, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton with some flesh and blood attached to it and held together by tendons, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton without any flesh but smeared with blood and held together by tendons, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton without any flesh or blood, held together by tendons, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, reduced to disconnected bones, scattered in all directions, here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, here a bone of the ankle, there a bone of the knee, here a bone of the thigh and there a bone of the pelvis, here a bone of the spine, there a bone of the back, again there a bone of the shoulder, here a bone of the throat, there a bone of the chin, here a bone of the teeth and there a bone of the skull, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, reduced to bleached bones of conch-like colour, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, of bones that are piled up in a heap more than a year old, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown in a charnel-ground, the bones having rotted away to powder, regarding his own body considers thus: "Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it."

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established: "This is body!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

3. The Observation of Sensations

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing sensations in sensations?

Here, monks, a monk, while experiencing a pleasant sensation, understands properly, "I am experiencing a pleasant sensation"; while experiencing an unpleasant sensation, he understands properly, "I am experiencing an unpleasant sensation"; while experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation, he understands properly, "I am experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation." While he is experiencing a pleasant sensation with attachment, he understands properly, "I am experiencing a pleasant sensation with attachment"; while he is experiencing a pleasant sensation without attachment, he understands properly, "I am experiencing a pleasant sensation without attachment"; while experiencing an unpleasant sensation with attachment, he understands properly, "I am experiencing an unpleasant sensation with attachment"; while experiencing an unpleasant sensation without attachment, he understands properly, "I am experiencing an unpleasant sensation without attachment"; while experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation with attachment, he understands properly, "I am experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation with attachment"; while experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation without attachment, he understands properly, "I am experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation without attachment."12

Thus he dwells observing sensations in sensations internally, or he dwells observing sensations in sensations externally,13 or he dwells observing sensations in sensations both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in sensations, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in sensations, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in sensations. Now his awareness is established: "This is sensation!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing sensations in sensations.

4. The Observation of Mind

Again, monks, how does a monk dwell, observing mind in mind?14

Here, monks, a monk understands properly mind with craving as mind with craving, he understands properly mind free from craving as mind free from craving, he understands properly mind with aversion as mind with aversion, he understands properly mind free from aversion as mind free from aversion, he understands properly mind with delusion as mind with delusion, he understands properly mind free from delusion as mind free from delusion, he understands properly collected mind as collected mind, he understands properly a scattered mind as scattered mind,15 he understands properly expanded mind as expanded mind, he understands properly unexpanded mind as unexpanded mind,16 he understands properly surpassable mind as surpassable mind, he understands properly unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable mind,17 he understands properly concentrated mind as concentrated mind, he understands properly unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated mind,18 he understands properly freed mind as freed mind, he understands properly not freed mind as not freed mind.

Thus he dwells observing mind in mind internally, or he dwells observing mind in mind externally, or he dwells observing mind in mind both internally and externally.19 Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the mind, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the mind, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mind. Now his awareness is established: "This is mind!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mind in mind.

5. The Observation of Mental Contents

A. The Section on the Hindrances

Again, monks, how does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents?

Here, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five hindrances.

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five hindrances?

Here, monks, a monk, whenever sense desire is present in him, he understands properly that, "Sense desire is present in me." Whenever sense desire is absent from him, he understands properly that, "Sense desire is absent from me." He understands properly, how sense desire that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how sense desire that has now arisen in him, gets eradicated. He understands properly, how sense desire that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Whenever aversion is present in him, he understands properly that, "Aversion is present in me." Whenever aversion is absent from him, he understands properly that, "Aversion is absent from me." He understands properly, how aversion that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how aversion that has now arisen in him, gets eradicated. He understands properly, how aversion that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Whenever sloth and torpor are present in him, he understands properly that, "Sloth and torpor are present in me." Whenever sloth and torpor are absent from him, he understands properly that, "Sloth and torpor are absent from me." He understands properly, how sloth and torpor that have not yet arisen in him, come to arise. He understands properly, how sloth and torpor that have now arisen in him, get eradicated. He understands properly, how sloth and torpor that have now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Whenever agitation and remorse are present in him, he understands properly that, "Agitation and remorse are present in me." Whenever agitation and remorse are absent from him, he understands properly that, "Agitation and remorse are absent from me." He understands properly, how agitation and remorse that have not yet arisen in him, come to arise. He understands properly, how agitation and remorse that have now arisen in him, get eradicated. He understands properly, how agitation and remorse that have now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Whenever doubt is present in him, he understands properly that, "Doubt is present in me." Whenever doubt is absent from him, he understands properly that, "Doubt is absent from me." He understands properly, how doubt that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how doubt that has now arisen in him, gets eradicated. He understands properly, how doubt that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental contents. Now his awareness is established: "These are mental contents!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents as regards the five hindrances.

B. The Section on the Aggregates

Again, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five aggregates of clinging.20

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five aggregates of clinging?

Here, monks, a monk [understands properly]: "Such is matter, such is the arising of matter, such is the passing away of matter; such are sensations, such is the arising of sensations, such is the passing away of sensations; such is perception, such is the arising of perception, such is the passing away of perception; such are reactions, such is the arising of reactions, such is the passing away of reactions; such is consciousness, such is the arising of consciousness, such is the passing away of consciousness."

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental contents. Now his awareness is established: "These are mental contents!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents as regards the five aggregates of clinging.

C. The Section on the Sense Spheres

Again, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the six internal and external sense spheres.

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the six internal and external sense spheres?

Here, monks, a monk understands properly the eye, he understands properly the visible object and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

He understands properly the ear, he understands properly sound and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

He understands properly the nose, he understands properly smell and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

He understands properly the tongue, he understands properly taste and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

He understands properly the body, he understands properly touch and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

He understands properly the mind, he understands properly the contents of the mind and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental contents. Now his awareness is established: "These are mental contents!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents as regards the six internal and external sense spheres.

D. The Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

Again, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the seven factors of enlightenment.

How, monks, does a monk dwell observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the seven factors of enlightenment?

Here, monks, a monk understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, awareness, is present within him, "The factor of enlightenment, awareness, is present in me." He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, awareness, is absent from him, "The factor of enlightenment, awareness, is absent from me." He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, awareness, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, awareness, that has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

When the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma,21 is present in him, he understands properly, "The factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, is present in me." He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, is absent from him, "The factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, is absent from me." He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, that has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

When the factor of enlightenment, effort, is present in him, he understands properly, "The factor of enlightenment, effort, is present in me." He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, effort, is absent from him, "The factor of enlightenment, effort, is absent from me." He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, effort, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, that has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

When the factor of enlightenment, rapture,22 is present in him, he understands properly, "The factor of enlightenment, rapture, is present in me." He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, rapture, is absent from him, "The factor of enlightenment, rapture, is absent from me." He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, rapture, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, rapture, that has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

When the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity,23 is present in him, he understands properly, "The factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, is present in me." He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, is absent from him, "The factor of enlightenment, tranquillity is absent from me." He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, that has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

When the factor of enlightenment, concentration, is present in him, he understands properly, "The factor of enlightenment, concentration, is present in me." He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, concentration, is absent from him, "The factor of enlightenment, concentration, is absent from me." He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, concentration, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, concentration, that has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

When the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is present in him, he understands properly, "The factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is present in me." He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is absent from him, "The factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is absent from me." He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, that has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental contents. Now his awareness is established: "These are mental contents!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents as regards the seven factors of enlightenment.

E. The Section on the Noble Truths

Again, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the four noble truths.

How, monks, does a monk dwell observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the four noble truths?

Here, monks, a monk understands properly as it is, "This is suffering"; he understands properly as it is, "This is the arising of suffering"; he understands properly as it is, "This is the cessation of suffering"; he understands properly as it is, "This is the path leading to the cessation of suffering."

Exposition of the Truth of Suffering

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering?

Birth is suffering, old age is suffering, (sickness is suffering),24 death is suffering, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress are suffering, the association with something that one does not like is suffering, the disassociation with something that one does like is suffering, not to get what one desires is suffering; in short, the clinging to the five aggregates is suffering.

And what, monks, is birth? If there is birth for all kinds of beings in whatever kind of existence, their conception, their being born, their becoming, the coming into manifestation of their aggregates, the acquisition of their sense faculties—this, monks, is called birth.

And what, monks, is old age? If there is old age for all kinds of beings in whatever kind of existence, their getting frail and decrepit, the breaking [of their teeth], their becoming grey and wrinkled, the running down of their life span, the deterioration of their sense faculties—this, monks, is called old age.

And what, monks, is death? If there is vanishing and passing away for all kinds of beings in whatever kind of existence, their disintegration, their disappearance, their dying, their death, the completion of their life span, the dissolution of the aggregates, the discarding of the body, the destruction of their vitality—this, monks, is called death.

And what, monks, is sorrow? Whenever one, monks, is affected by various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that kind of painful state of mind, by sorrow, by mourning, by sorrowfulness, by inward grief, and by deep inward woe—this, monks, is called sorrow.

And what, monks, is lamentation? Whenever one, monks, is affected by various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that kind of painful state of mind, by wailing and crying, by lamentation, by deep wailing, by deep lamentation, by the state of deep wailing and deep lamentation—this, monks, is called lamentation.

And what, monks, is pain?25 If there is, monks, any kind of bodily pain, any kind of bodily unpleasantness or any kind of painful or unpleasant sensation as a result of bodily contact—this, monks, is called pain.

And what, monks, is grief?25 If there is, monks, any kind of mental pain, any kind of mental unpleasantness or any kind of painful or unpleasant sensation as a result of mental contact—this, monks, is called grief.

And what, monks, is distress? Whenever one, monks, is affected by various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that kind of painful state of mind, by tribulation, by distress, affliction with distress and affliction with great distress—this, monks, is called distress.

And what, monks, is the suffering of being associated with what one does not like? Wherever and whenever one finds unpleasant, disagreeable or disliked objects of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch or of the mind, or, whenever and wherever one finds that there are wishers of one’s own misfortune, harm, difficulties or of one’s own insecurity; if one gets associated, one meets, one comes into contact or gets combined with them—this, monks, is called the suffering of being associated with what one does not like.

And what, monks, is the suffering of being disassociated with what one does like? Wherever and whenever one finds pleasant, agreeable or liked objects of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch or of the mind, or, whenever and wherever one finds that there are wishers of one’s own fortune, prosperity, comfort or of one’s own security, like mother and father, like brother and sister, like friends and colleagues or relatives; if one gets disassociated, one does not meet, one does not come into contact or does not get combined with them—this, monks, is called the suffering of being disassociated with what one does like.

And what, monks, is not getting what one desires? In beings, monks, who are subject to birth the desire arises: "Oh, truly, that we were not subject to birth! Oh, truly, may there be no new birth for us!" But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is suffering.

In beings, monks, who are subject to old age the desire arises: "Oh, truly, that we were not subject to old age! Oh, truly, may we not be subject to old age!" But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is suffering.

In beings, monks, who are subject to sickness the desire arises: "Oh, truly, that we were not subject to sickness! Oh, truly, may there be no sickness for us!" But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is suffering.

In beings, monks, who are subject to death the desire arises: "Oh, truly, that we were not subject to death! Oh, truly, may we never have to die!" But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is suffering.

In beings, monks, who are subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress the desire arises: "Oh, truly, that we were not subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress! Oh, truly, may we not suffer from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress!" But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is suffering.

And how, monks, in short, is clinging to the five aggregates suffering? It is as follows—clinging to the aggregate of matter is suffering, clinging to the aggregate of sensation is suffering, clinging to the aggregate of perception is suffering, clinging to the aggregate of reaction is suffering, clinging to the aggregate of consciousness is suffering. This, monks, in short, is called suffering because of clinging to these five aggregates.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering.

Exposition of the Truth of the Arising of Suffering

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering?

It is this craving that occurs again and again and is bound up with pleasure and lust and finds delight now here, now there. That is, the craving for sensual pleasures, the craving for repeated rebirth and the craving for annihilation.

But where does this craving, monks, arise and where does it get established?

Wherever in the world [of mind and matter] there is something enticing and pleasurable, there this craving arises and gets established.

But what in the world26 [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable? The eye in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The ear … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The nose … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The tongue … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The body … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mind in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

Visible objects, material forms in the world [of mind and matter], are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. Sounds … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. Smells … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. Tastes … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. Touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The contents of the mind in the world [of mind and matter] are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The eye consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The ear consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The nose consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The tongue consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The body consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mind consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The eye contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The ear-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The nose-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The tongue-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The body-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mind-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The sensation arising from the eye-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising from the ear-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising from the nose-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising from the tongue-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising from the body-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising from the mind-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The perception of visible objects, of material forms, in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The perception of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The perception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The perception of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The perception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The perception of mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The mental reaction to visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mental reaction to sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mental reaction to smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mental reaction to tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mental reaction to touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mental reaction to mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The craving after visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The thought conception27 of visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought conception of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought conception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought conception of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought conception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought conception of mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

The rolling in thoughts of visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling in thoughts of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling in thoughts of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling in thoughts of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling in thoughts of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling in thoughts of mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering.

Exposition of the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering?

It is the complete fading away and cessation of this very craving, forsaking it and giving it up; the liberation from it, leaving no place for it. But where may this craving, monks, be eradicated; where may it be extinguished? Wherever in the world [of mind and matter] there is something enticing and pleasurable: there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

But what in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable? The eye in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The ear … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The nose … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The tongue … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The body … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mind in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The objects of sight, the material forms in the world [of mind and matter], are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The sounds … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The smells … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The tastes … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. Touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The contents of the mind in the world [of mind and matter] are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The eye-consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The ear-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The nose-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The tongue-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The body-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mind-consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The eye-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The ear-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The nose-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The tongue-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The body-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mind-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The sensation that arises from the eye contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the ear contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the nose contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the tongue contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the body contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the mind contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The perception of visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The mental reaction towards visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The craving after visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The thought conception of visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

The rolling in thoughts of visible objects in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

Exposition of the Truth of the Path

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering? It is this, the Noble Eightfold Path, namely: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right awareness and right concentration.

And what, monks, is Right Understanding? It is this, monks: the knowledge of suffering, the knowledge of the arising of suffering, the knowledge of the cessation of suffering, the knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of suffering. This, monks, is called Right Understanding.

And what, monks, is Right Thought? Thoughts of renunciation, thoughts that are free from aversion and thoughts that are free from violence. This, monks, is called Right Thought.

And what, monks, is Right Speech? Abstaining from lying, abstaining from slander and backbiting, abstaining from harsh words and abstaining from frivolous talk. This, monks, is called Right Speech.

And what, monks, is Right Action? Abstaining from killing, abstaining from taking what has not been given and abstaining from sexual misconduct. This, monks, is called Right Action.

And what, monks, is Right Livelihood? Here, monks, a noble disciple having given up wrong ways of livelihood earns his livelihood by right means. This, monks, is called Right Livelihood.

And what, monks, is Right Effort? Here, monks, a monk generates the will to prevent the arising of unarisen evil unwholesome mental states; he makes strong effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and strives. To eradicate those evil unwholesome mental states that have arisen in him, he generates the will, makes strong effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and strives. To develop wholesome mental states that have not yet arisen in him, he generates will, makes strong effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and strives. To maintain wholesome mental states that have arisen in him, not to let them fade away, to multiply them and bring them to full maturity and to full development, he generates will, makes strong effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and strives. This, monks, is called Right Effort.

And what, monks, is Right Awareness? Here, monks, a monk dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing body in body, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing sensations in sensations, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing mind in mind, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing mental contents in mental contents, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]. This, monks, is called Right Awareness.

And what, monks, is right concentration? Here monks, a monk, detached from craving, detached from unwholesome mental states, enters into the first absorption, born of detachment, accompanied by initial and sustained application of the mind27 and filled with rapture and bliss and he dwells therein. With the subsiding of initial and sustained application of the mind and gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of mind he enters into the second absorption, born of concentration, free from initial and sustained application of the mind, filled with rapture and bliss and he dwells therein. After the fading away of rapture he dwells in equanimity, aware with constant thorough understanding of impermanence, and he experiences in his body the bliss of which the noble ones say: "That bliss is experienced by one with equanimity and awareness." Thus he enters the third absorption and dwells therein. After the eradication of pleasure and pain and with joy and grief having previously passed away, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain, the fourth absorption, that is totally purified by equanimity and awareness and he dwells therein. This, monks, is called Right Concentration.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental contents. Now his awareness is established: "These are mental contents!" Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents as regards the Four Noble Truths.

6. The Results of the Establishing of Awareness

Indeed, monks, whoever practises this fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner28 for seven years, he may expect one of two results: in this very life highest wisdom29 or, if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.30

Let alone seven years, monks. Should any person practise this fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner for six years, one of two results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom or, if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

Let alone six years, monks...

Let alone five years, monks...

Let alone four years, monks...

Let alone three years, monks...

Let alone two years, monks...

Let alone one year, monks. Should any person practise this fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner for seven months, one of two results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom or, if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

Let alone seven months, monks...

Let alone six months, monks...

Let alone five months, monks...

Let alone four months, monks...

Let alone three months, monks...

Let alone two months, monks...

Let alone one month, monks...

Let alone half a month, monks...

Let alone half a month, monks. Should any person practise this fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner for seven days, one of two results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom or, if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

It is for this reason that it was said: "This is the one and only way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the extinguishing of suffering and grief, for walking on the path of truth, for the realisation of nibb±na: that is to say, the fourfold establishing of awareness."

Thus the Enlightened One spoke. Glad in heart, the monks welcomed the words of the Enlightened One.

The End of the Mah±satipaµµh±na Sutta

Notes

N.B. For clarity, the footnoted passage will be indicated in the notes by P±li in italics followed immediately by the English translation in square brackets, e.g. sati [awareness]. Other P±li words used in the notes will be followed by their equivalent terms in parentheses where appropriate, e.g. anicca (impermanence).

1. The word bhikkh³ [monks] was used to address all the people who listened to the discourses given by the Buddha. Thus every meditator, everyone who is walking on the path of Dhamma, though not literally a bhikkhu, can benefit by following the instructions given here.

2. Satipaµµh±na [establishing of awareness] Sati means "awareness." Satipaµµh±na implies that the meditator has to work diligently and constantly to become firmly established in awareness or mindfulness. Therefore we have used "the establishing of awareness," to convey the sense that one actively strives to maintain continuous awareness of mind and body at the level of sensations, as will become clear from the rest of the discourse.

There are certain passages in the Buddha’s discourses where sati has the meaning of "memory." (D²gha-nik±ya: VRI I. 411; II. 374; PTS I. 180; II. 292). This is especially true when he refers to the special ability of remembering past lives which is developed by means of the practice of the jh±nas (deep absorption concentration). But in the context of Satipaµµh±na, the practice of Vipassana, leading not to the jh±nas but to purification of mind, sati can only be understood to mean awareness of the present moment rather than a memory of the past (or a dream of the future).

3. The Buddha always included the term sampajañña [constant thorough understanding of impermanence] or sampaj±no (the adjective form of sampajañña) whenever he was asked to explain sati (awareness). (See, for example, the definition of samm±sati in the Chapter on the Four Noble Truths: Truth of the Path.) As a result of the frequent association of these words, sampajañña has often been defined as nearly synonymous with sati —as "full awareness," or "clear comprehension"—or as an exhortation to remain mindful. Another traditional translation of sampajañña, which is closer to the full meaning is "thorough understanding."

In the Sutta Piµaka the Buddha gave two explanations of the term. In the Sa½yutta-nik±ya (VRI III. 401; PTS V, 180-1) he defines it as follows:

Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampaj±no hoti? Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhuno vidit± vedan± uppajjanti, vidit± upaµµhahanti, vidit± abbhattha½ gacchanti; vidit± saññ± uppajjanti, vidit± upaµµhahanti, vidit± abbhattha½ gacchanti; vidit± vitakk± uppajjanti, vidit± upaµµhahanti, vidit± abbhattha½ gacchanti. Eva½ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampaj±no hoti.

And how, monks, does a monk understand thoroughly? Here, monks, a monk experiences sensations arising in him, experiences their persisting, and experiences their vanishing; he experiences perceptions arising in him, experiences their persisting, and experiences their vanishing; he experiences each initial application of the mind [on an object] arising in him, experiences its persisting, and experiences its vanishing. This, monks, is how a monk understands thoroughly.

In the above statement it is clear that one is sampaj±no only when one understands the characteristic of impermanence (arising, persisting and vanishing). This understanding must be based on sensation (vidit± vedan±). If the characteristic of impermanence is not experienced at the level of vedan±, then one’s understanding is merely an intellectualization, since it is only through sensation that direct experience occurs. The statement further indicates that sampajañña lies in the experience of the impermanence of saññ± and vitakk±. Here we should note that impermanence understood at the level of vedan± actually covers all three cases since according to the Buddha’s teaching in the Aªguttara-nik±ya (VRI III. Dasakanip±ta, 58; PTS V. 107):

Vedan±-samosaraº± sabbe dhamm±.

Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations.

The second explanation of sampajañña given by the Buddha emphasizes that it must be continuous. In several places he repeats the words of the Sampaj±napabba½ of Mah±satipaµµh±na Sutta, as in this passage from the Mah±parinibb±na Sutta (D²gha-nik±ya II: VRI. 160; PTS 95):

Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampaj±no hoti? Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paµikkante sampaj±nak±r² hoti, ±lokite vilokite sampaj±nak±r² hoti, samiñjite pas±rite sampaj±nak±r² hoti, saªgh±µipattac²varadh±raºe sampaj±nak±r² hoti, asite p²te kh±yite s±yite sampaj±nak±r² hoti, ucc±rapass±vakamme sampaj±nak±r² hoti, gate µhite nisinne sutte j±garite bh±site tuºh²bh±ve sampaj±nak±r² hoti.

And how, monks, does a monk understand thoroughly? Here, monks, a monk, while going forward or backward, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is looking straight ahead or looking sideways, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; while he is bending or stretching, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether wearing his robes or carrying his bowl, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is eating, drinking, chewing or savouring, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; while attending to the calls of nature, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is walking, standing, sitting, sleeping or waking, speaking or in silence, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence.

With proper understanding of the teaching of the Buddha, it becomes clear that if this continuous sampajañña consists only of the thorough understanding of the external processes of walking, eating, and other activities of the body, then what is being practised is merely sati. If, however, the constant thorough understanding includes the characteristic of the arising and passing away of vedan± while the meditator is performing these activities, then sampaj±no satim± is being practised, paññ± (wisdom) is being developed.

The Buddha describes this more specifically in this passage from the Aªguttara-nik±ya (VRI I. Catukkanip±ta, 12; PTS II 15) in words reminiscent of Sampaj±napabba½:

Yata½ care yata½ tiµµhe, yata½ acche yata½ saye
yata½ samiñjaye bhikkhu, yatamena½ pas±raye
uddha½ tiriya½ ap±c²na½, y±vat± jagato gati,
samavekkhit± ca dhamm±na½, khandh±na½ udayabbaya½.

Whether the monk walks or stands or sits or lies,
whether he bends or stretches, above, across, backwards,
whatever his course in the world,
he observes the arising and passing away of the aggregates.

The Buddha clearly emphasized the thorough understanding of anicca (impermanence) in all bodily and mental activities. Therefore, since the proper understanding of this technical term, sampajañña, is so critical for an understanding of this sutta, we have translated it as "the constant thorough understanding of impermanence," even though this definition is less concise than the traditional "thorough understanding."

4. In this introductory paragraph the Buddha repeats a basic verbal formula reminding us that we must continuously observe "body in body," or "sensations in sensations," or "mind in mind," or "mental contents in mental contents." Though these verbal constructs may seem unusual, they refer to the fact that this observation has to be directly experiential rather than dealing only with thought, imagination or contemplation of the object.

The Buddha emphasizes this point in the ¾n±p±nasati Sutta (M±jjhima-nik±ya III: VRI. 149; PTS 83-4), where he describes the progressive stages of the practice of ±n±p±na meditation. In the section where he explains how the four satipaµµh±n± are brought to perfection by ±n±p±na he says:

...k±yesu k±yaññatar±ha½, bhikkhave, eva½ vad±mi yadida½ ass±sapass±s±. Tasm±tiha, bhikkhave, k±ye k±y±nupass² tasmi½ samaye bhikkhu viharati ±t±p² sampaj±no satim± vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassa½.

...Monks, when I say, ‘inhalation-exhalation,’ it is like another body in the body. Observing body in body in this way, monks, at that time a monk dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, having removed craving and aversion towards this world [of mind and matter].

This indicates that practising ±n±p±na meditation leads directly to experiencing the body, which means feeling sensations in the body. The sensations may be related to the breath, the oxygen flowing in the blood, etc. but those details are not important. The body-in-body experience is not imagined or contemplated but felt throughout the body. More specifically, he continues:

...vedan±su vedan±ññatar±ha½, bhikkhave, eva½ vad±mi yadida½ ass±sapass±s±na½ s±dhuka½ manasik±ra½. Tasm±tiha, bhikkhave, vedan±su vedan±nupass² tasmi½ samaye bhikkhu viharati ±t±p² sampaj±no satim± vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassa½.

...monks, when I say, ‘by proper attention to inhalation-exhalation,’ it is like other sensations in the sensations. Observing sensations in sensations in this way, monks, at that time a monk dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, having removed craving and aversion towards this world [of mind and matter].

By equating the observation of the breath with experiencing sensations the Buddha is pointing to the critical importance of the body and the sensations in proper practice of meditation. It is the awareness of these sensations by direct experience throughout the body, while maintaining equanimity with the understanding of impermanence, that perfects the four satipaµµh±nas.

It is instructive that in ¾n±p±nasati Sutta he describes the experience of body-in-body and sensations-in-sensations as one observes the breath but when he turns to the observation of mind he does not continue with the same verbal formula. Instead, he again directs our attention to the importance of sampajañña:

...citte citt±nupass², bhikkhave, tasmi½ samaye bhikkhu viharati ±t±p² sampaj±no satim± vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassa½. N±ha½, bhikkhave, muµµhassatissa asampaj±nassa ±n±p±nassati½ vad±mi.

...observing mind in mind, monks, at that time a monk dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, having removed craving and aversion towards this world [of mind and matter]. I say, monks, one who is inattentive, who is not constantly aware of impermanence, he is not one doing ±n±p±na.

Beginning with ±n±p±na as a starting point the practice described has led directly to Vipassana, i.e., to the practice of the four satipaµµh±nas. And here we see how emphatically the Buddha states that, even while observing the mind, one is not practising properly unless there is awareness of impermanence with the direct experience of the sensations.

5. Paj±n±ti [understands properly] means, "to understand, to know deeply or intently with wisdom." It is the result of the intensification of the verb j±n±ti (he or she knows) by the addition of the prefix pa-, from paññ± (wisdom).

6. Iti ajjhatta½...k±ye k±y±nupass² viharati. [Thus he dwells...dwells observing body in body.] This paragraph is repeated twenty-one times throughout the Mah±satipaµµh±na Sutta, with variations according to which section of the four satipaµµh±nas one has reached: body, sensations, mind or mental contents.

In this key paragraph the Buddha describes the common steps in Vipassana that all meditators must pass through no matter what section of the sutta one begins with. In each repetition, this paragraph focuses our attention on the essential fact that, no matter if one is observing body, sensations, mind or mental contents, one must understand the fundamental characteristic of arising and passing away. This understanding of impermanence then leads directly to the total detachment from the world of mind and matter which takes us to nibb±na (liberation).

7. Bahiddh±  [externally] is sometimes translated as "outer things" or "observing another’s body." In the following section, on the observation of sensations, it has sometimes been taken to mean "feeling the sensations of others." While such an experience is not impossible, it would be practised only at a very high stage of development. According to the sutta, the meditator is asked to sit alone somewhere in a forest, under a tree or in an empty room, and start practising. In such a situation observing others would be meaningless, and the sensations of someone or something else would be of no use. For a meditator, therefore, "externally," meaning the surface of the body, is the most practical definition of bahiddh±.

See also note no. 19.

8. The P±li atthi k±yo [this is body] indicates that the meditator at this stage clearly understands experientially, at the level of sensations, "body" in its true nature: its characteristic of arising and passing away. Therefore the meditator neither makes any identification of "body" as male or female, young or old, beautiful or ugly, etc., nor has any attachment towards "I," "me," or "mine."

In the other three sections of the sutta, the sensations, mind and mental contents are each identified similarly in their corresponding paragraphs: "This is sensation," "This is mind," "These are mental contents," to indicate the lack of identification of the meditator with the object, and his or her understanding of the object in its true characteristic of anicca (impermanence).

9. Y±vadeva ñ±ºamatt±ya paµissatimatt±ya [Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness.] The mind of the meditator at this stage is absorbed in the wisdom of anicca (the arising and passing away of sensations), with no identification beyond this awareness. With the base of this awareness he develops understanding with his own experience. This is paññ± (wisdom). With his awareness thus established in anicca, there is no attraction to the world of mind and matter.

10. This includes the changing of position as well as the four basic postures of the body. Whatever one does, an ardent meditator is always aware with wisdom: yath± yath± v±…tath± tath± na½ paj±n±ti (whatever he does…that he understands properly).

11. Sampaj±nak±r² hoti [does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence] literally means: "He is doing (all the time) sampajañña." It is helpful to follow the progression of the Buddha’s words in P±li: he uses "j±n±ti" (he knows), "paj±n±ti" (understands properly—intently or deeply with wisdom), and "sampaj±n±ti" (he constantly and thoroughly understands the impermanent nature of his experience). Each word indicates a progressive step, that the meditator takes by following the instructions given in the sutta. Thus he proceeds from simple experience, to understanding based on direct experience, up to thorough and constant understanding of the impermanence, at the level of sensations, of each and every experience.

12. S±misa [with attachment] literally means: sa-±misa (with-flesh); nir±misa [without attachment]: means nir-±misa (without-flesh). They can also be rendered as: "impure" and "pure," "material" and "immaterial" or, "sensual" and "nonsensual." A common interpretation is that a sensation which is s±misa is related to the world of sensual pleasures and a nir±misa sensation is a sensation related to the higher meditational realms.

In this context, related to the observation of sensations without any reaction of craving or aversion by the meditator, we have used "with attachment" and "without attachment." These terms seem clearest insofar as they relate to the practice.

13. See note no. 7.

14. Citta [mind], in this context, is correctly translated as "mind." The meditator experiences different states of mind and observes them in an objective and detached manner. It might be misleading to translate citta here as "thought."

Citte citt±nupass² [mind in mind] refers to the experiential nature of the observation required (see note no. 4).

15. Saªkhitta½ [collected] and vikkhitta½ [scattered] correspond to mental states either scattered because of the pañca n²varaº±, the "five hindrances," or collected when the hindrances are not manifesting their respective effects. (See the following Section 5A, The Hindrances.)

16. Mahaggata½ citta½ [expanded mind] means literally: "mind having become great;" i.e., by the practice and development of the jh±nas (the practice of absorption sam±dhi). It refers to a mind expanded by the practice of these deep sam±dhis, rather than the stage transcending mind and matter. Amahaggata½ citta½ [unexpanded mind] thus means a mind not having become expanded in this way.

17. Sa-uttara½ [surpassable] means: "having something higher than that" or "not superior." This type of mind is still connected with the mundane field. Anuttara½ [unsurpassable], correspondingly, is a mind that has reached a very high stage of meditation, where nothing is superior. Therefore "surpassable" and "unsurpassable," though not very precise, seem to be the nearest translations.

18. Sam±hita½ [concentrated] and asam±hita½ [unconcentrated] are related to the type of sam±dhi (concentration) that one has gained; states of concentration that are called: upac±ra (neighbourhood concentration, i.e. approaching a level of absorption) and appan± sam±dhi (absorption, or attainment, concentration). Asam±hita½ citta½ therefore describes a mental state without that depth of concentration.

19. Iti ajjhatta½...bahiddh±...ajjhattabahiddh± v± citte citt±nupass² viharati [Thus he dwells observing mind in mind internally... externally...both internally and externally]. Applied to the mind (and in the next section, the mental contents) this sentence has sometimes been interpreted to mean that the meditator observes his own mind (internally) and the mind of others (externally). This can be done only by a very highly developed meditator, therefore it is not a practical instruction for most people.

In this section the meditator is asked to experience directly the mind in mind (citte citt±nupass²). This can be done only by observing whatever arises in the mind. As the body was experienced by means of what arises on the body (i.e., sensation); the mind is experienced only when something arises in the mind (i.e., the mental contents). When the mind is observing the internal objects—its own internal mental states—it is observing the mind in mind internally.

To observe the mind and mental contents externally means to observe experientially that any object which comes in contact with the mind-body through any of the six sense doors (that is, an external stimulus) causes an internal reaction. Any sight, sound, taste, smell, touch or thought results in a sensation and the mind feels it. Of course, internal mental states and sensation resulting from contact with external objects will all mix and flow together.

Therefore, again, we see the importance of the Buddha’s statement:

Vedan±-samosaraº± sabbe dhamm±.

Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations. (Aªguttara-nik±ya: VRI III. Dasakanip±ta, 58; PTS V. 107)

Whether the object is internal or external, if the mind remains within the body observing the sensations, then it is directly experiencing the mind and mental contents in a tangible way that easily allows the meditator to experience the impermanent nature of the entire mind-matter phenomenon.

20. Pañca up±d±nakkhandh± [the five aggregates of clinging] consist of: r³pakkhandha (the material aggregate) connected with k±ya (body) and the four n±makkhandh± (aggregates of mind), which are: viññ±ºakkhandha (the aggregate of consciousness);
saññ±kkhandha (the aggregate of perception);
vedan±kkhandha (the aggregate of feeling of sensations on the body)
saªkh±rakkhandha (the aggregate of reaction).

The pañca up±d±nakkhandh± are aggregates of clinging, or attachment, in two ways. They are the basic objects to which we cling because of our illusion that the five together make up "I," "me." In addition, the continual arising of the aggregates—with the attendant suffering that goes with the cycle of becoming—is due to the clinging toward this illusory "I." Aggregates and clinging always go together, except in the case of an arahant, who has pañca khandh±, the five aggregates, but no clinging towards them; no up±d±na (attachment or clinging) is possible for such a person.

21. Here dhamma has to be understood as the law of nature, the nature of the law in its totality. At a superficial level dhammavicaya [investigation of Dhamma] can be understood to mean intellectual investigation of the law. But to become a factor of enlightenment dhammavicaya must become an experiential investigation—direct experience of the phenomenon of arising and passing away at the level of sensations.

22. P²ti [rapture] is difficult to translate into English. It is often translated as: "joy," "delight," "bliss" or "thrill." Each of these words conveys at least partially the meaning of mental and physical pleasantness. For p²ti to become a factor of enlightenment it must be experienced in its true nature as ephemeral, arising and passing away. Only then can the meditator avoid the danger of becoming attached to the pleasantness of this stage.

23. As with the previous factor of enlightenment, passaddhi [tranquillity], becomes a factor of enlightenment only when it is experienced as impermanent, anicca—arising and passing away. The danger for the meditator here is that this stage of deep tranquillity might be mistaken for the final goal of nibb±na. This deep illusion (moha) is removed by the experience of anicca as one experiences this tranquillity.

24. In the texts by±dhi [sickness] is sometimes included, sometimes omitted.

25. Here it is very clear that the word dukkha [pain] is related to the body, and domanassa [grief] to the mind. Correspondingly, sukha (bodily pleasure) is related to the body, somanassa (mental pleasure) to the mind and adukkhamasukha (neither painful nor pleasant) as neutral, to both body and mind.

26. The word loke [world] has a wide spectrum of meaning: "universe," "world," "region," "people." In this entire section it is used in connection with everything that one experiences at any of the six senses, and the entire process of the contact between the senses and their respective objects. So in this context loke is to be understood as the "world" of the mind-body phenomenon. Therefore the entire "world" can be directly experienced at the level of the sensations in the body that result from any of these interactions.

27. Vitakko [thought conception] refers to the initial application of the mind to an object. This is contrasted with vic±ro [rolling in thoughts] in the next paragraph, which refers to a sustained application of the mind on an object.

In the later section, dealing with the jh±nas (see pp. 72,73), the translation reflects this relationship more directly since the context is one of deep absorption in the object of meditation rather than one where mental impurities are arising.

28. Eva½ [in this manner], as explained throughout the entire sutta, is ±t±p² sampaj±no satim± (ardent with awareness of mind and body at the level of sensations and with constant thorough understanding of impermanence). In order to achieve these guaranteed results the continuity should be sampajañña½ na riñcati ([the meditator] does not lose the constant thorough understanding of impermanence even for a moment).

29. The final stage of liberation of an arahant.

30. The stage of an an±g±m² [non-returner] is the third and next-to-last stage of liberation.